DICTIONARY

Wednesday, September 15, 2021 11:41PM EST


  1. 4K

    A form of UHD with a minimum screen width of 4,000 pixels.


  2. ADF

    Automatic document feeder.

  3. AGP

    Accelerated Graphics Port. A deprecated bus standard for dedicated GPUs.

  4. AIO

    All-in-one. A desktop computer with a self-contained screen.

  5. App

    Application.

  6. APU

    Accelerated processing unit. A CPU engineered with a GPU in a single chip.

  7. AV

    a. Antivirus.
    b. Audio/video.


  8. Bandwidth

    The speed at which data can be transmitted over a connection or network. Measured in bits-per-second.

  9. BIOS

    Basic Input/Output System. The firmware of a mainboard responsible for initializing system components.

  10. Boot

    To initialize a computer; start.

  11. Breadcrumbs

    The sequential names of pages within a website, often displayed as hyperlinks, indicating to a user the current path of a website hierarchy they are located.

  12. Bright

    Pixels. A lit pixel that fails to turn off.

  13. Browser

    An application that facilitates access to websites.

  14. BSOD

    Informal. Blue Screen of Death. A screen presented to users during a complete failure of an operating system to maintain function; a stop error.

  15. BT

    Bluetooth.

  16. Bug

    An error in the coding of a computer program that causes it to act in an undesirable way; glitch.

  17. Buffer

    A repository that temporarily holds data waiting to be processed.

  18. Bus

    The circuits or receptacles of a motherboard that connect expansive devices to a computer.


  19. Card

    A removeable, expansive component for a computer, connected via a bus.

  20. Clearnet

    Websites and Internet resources readily accessible over public network.

  21. Client

    Any computer or program that requests correspondence from a server.

  22. Clipboard

    A feature of operating systems that holds data cut or copied by a user.

  23. Clock

    The frequency at which a processor operates. Measured in hertz.

  24. Cloud

    A form of storage where data is saved remotely, but accessible as if local.

  25. Cookie

    A small packet of data stored on a browser or computer by a web server for referential purposes. Popular uses include tracking visits, shopping cart contents, and time spent visiting a website.

  26. Copy

    To copy selected data into the clipboard.

  27. Core

    A single microprocessor unit of a CPU.

  28. Corrupt

    The unintended restructuring of data that renders it partially or completely unreadable by a computer; damage.

  29. CPU

    a. Central processing unit. The component of a computer that interprets programmed instruction and outputs result.
    b. Informal. Any computer.

  30. Crack

    To defeat the security of a commercial software to allow or retain unauthorized installation and use.

  31. Crash

    The unexpected closing of an application or operating system due to an unresolvable error.

  32. CSS

    Cascading Style Sheets. A styling format and script for websites.

  33. Cursor

    The often small, on-screen visual indicator of the location of a mouse by the user.

  34. Cut

    To relocate entirely selected data into the clipboard.


  35. Daemon

    A process or service that operates in the background.

  36. Darknet

    Websites and Internet resources requiring specific software or applications to access, esp. those providing anonymity.

  37. Dead

    Pixels. A pixel that fails to light when powered.

  38. DDoS

    Distributed denial-of-service. A denial-of-service attack that is perpetrated from multiple computers.

  39. DCHP

    Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.

  40. DL

    Download.

  41. DLC

    Downloadable content.

  42. DLL

    Dynamic-link library.

  43. DDR

    Double data rate.

  44. Debug

    a. The process of locating and correcting bugs.
    b. An interface that facilitates debugging.

  45. Dedicated

    GPUs. Separate and removeable; not integrated; discrete.

  46. Default

    A course of action or setting that a computer or application assumes if not overrode by a user.

  47. Deprecate

    A practice or technology that has been effectively replaced and whose future use is discouraged.

  48. Desktop

    a. The primary, usually initial screen of an operating system, where common application icons and features may be accessed.
    b. A computer housed in a separate case that is connected to a monitor and input devices.
    c. An all-in-one.

  49. DIMM

    Memory. Dual in-line memory module. A component standard.

  50. Discrete

    GPUs. Separate and removeable; not integrated; dedicated.

  51. DoS

    Denial-of-service. A form of cyberattack accomplished by overloading a target system with illegitimate traffic or requests in an attempt to disrupt operation or access.

  52. Dox

    To maliciously publish identifying information about a person, such as their name, home address, telephone number, place of work, etc.

  53. DP

    DisplayPort. A digital audio/video standard.

  54. Drag

    To move the cursor while holding down the selection button of an input device.

  55. Driver

    Software that controls or fully enables a component of a computer.

  56. Dump

    a. To request that a software export as a file a record of all data and actions taken during process.
    b. The file exported.

  57. DVI

    Digital Visual Interface. An analog video standard.


  58. ECC

    Memory. Error-correcting code.

  59. eSATA

    External SATA. A form of SATA for connecting external devices to a computer.

  60. Ethernet

    Trademark. A communications protocol.

  61. EULA

    End-user license agreement.

  62. Exception

    An unresolvable error in an application that often causes it to close.

  63. Execute

    To request to start an application; run.

  64. exFAT

    Extended File Allocation Table. A file system for storage devices.


  65. FAT

    File Allocation Table. A file system for storage devices.

  66. FDD

    Floppy disk drive.

  67. FHD

    Full high-definition; Full HD. A screen resolution of 1080p.

  68. Firewall

    Software or hardware that regulates network access to and from a computer or resource.

  69. Flash

    a. Flash memory. A digital storage medium consisting of chips on a PCB.
    b. To upgrade a BIOS or firmware.

  70. Fork

    Fork bomb. A malicious, self-replicating process designed to consume as much of a systems resources as possible to disrupt operation or access.

  71. Framerate

    The speed at which a display can process and draw frames to a screen.

  72. FTP

    File transfer protocol.


  73. GB

    Gigabyte. 1,024 megabytes.

  74. GIF

    Graphics Interchange Format. An animatable, image file format.

  75. Glitch

    An error in the coding of a computer program that causes it to act in an undesirable way; bug.

  76. GPU

    Graphics processing unit. A processor, separate from the CPU, that reads and executes visual data to a monitor or screen.

  77. GUI

    Graphical user interface.


  78. Hack

    To defeat the security of a system in order to gain access to information contained on the system, a resource, control of the system, or a combination of the three.

  79. Hang

    To fail to respond to input; freeze.

  80. Heatsink

    The often finned, aluminum unit affixed to processors in order to draw heat away from them.

  81. HD

    a. High-definition. A screen resolution of at least 720p.
    b. Hard drive.

  82. HDD

    Hard disk drive. A mechanical storage device consisting of magnetic disks that data is read from and written to.

  83. HDMI

    High-Definition Multimedia Interface. A proprietary digital audio/video standard.

  84. HID

    Human interface device.

  85. HTML

    Hyper Text Markup Language. A programming language for websites.


  86. Icon

    A small pictorial image used in a GUI to represent an application.

  87. IDE

    HDDs. Integrated Drive Electronics. Parallel ATA; PATA. A deprecated hard drive standard.

  88. Image

    A virtual copy of a hard drive or optical disk.

  89. IMAP

    Internet Message Access Protocol. An email protocol that downloads and syncs copies of emails across accessing devices.

  90. Integrated

    A component built-in to a system that cannot be removed.

  91. IoT

    Internet of things.

  92. IP

    Internet Protocol. A protocol for devices connected to a network, usu. the Internet, that assigns participating devices addresses.

  93. IPS

    In-plane switching. A technology of LCD displays that attempts to remedy color reproduction when viewed from angles.

  94. ISO

    a. International Organization for Standardization.
    b. An optical disc image file format.

  95. ISP

    Internet service provider.

  96. IT

    Information technology.


  97. JPEG

    Joint Photographic Experts Group. An image file format.

  98. JS

    JavaScript.


  99. KB

    Kilobyte.


  100. LAN

    Local area network.

  101. LCD

    Liquid crystal display. A format of display for computer monitors, televisions, etc. that uses liquid crystals, polarizers, and some form of backlighting to produce visual data on a screen.

  102. LED

    a. Light-emitting diode.
    b. An LCD monitor backlit with LEDs.

  103. Legacy

    Outdated and often unsupported software or hardware still widely in use.

  104. Local

    Accessible on one’s immediate system or network; not remote.

  105. Logical

    HDDs. A partition capable of operating independently from both the primary partition, and other logical drives.

  106. Lost

    The state of data becoming permanently unrecoverable, either because unsaved access to the data has ended, or because of a fault with the system.

  107. LP

    Cases. Low-profile.


  108. M.2

    A flash hardware component standard.

  109. Master

    The primary hard drive of a computer in relation to other drives present.

  110. MB

    Megabyte. 1,024 kilobytes.

  111. Memory

    The physical or virtual component of a computer that temporarily holds data waiting to be processed; random-access memory; RAM.

  112. MMS

    Multimedia Messaging Service. An extension of SMS (Short Message Service) that includes the sending of items such as picture, video, and audio.

  113. Motherboard

    The primary, circuited board of a computer, that houses all essential components like the processor and memory, and whereupon additional components are connected.

  114. mSATA

    Mini-SATA. A digital computer bus standard for drives.


  115. NAS

    Network attached storage. A form of hard drive storage with its own built-in firmware or operating system that is connected to a network and accessed with a computer.

  116. Native

    The ability of software or hardware to perform a task on its own, without being reliant on a secondary or external source to do so.

  117. NB

    Northbridge.

  118. NFT

    Non-fungible token. A unique, specialty file (usu. a graphic) checked against a blockchain to prevent copying, often sold and collected.

  119. NIC

    Network interface controller. The component of a computer that enables access to a network.

  120. Node

    A proxy.

  121. Northbridge

    The chip of a motherboard that directly manages communication between the processor, memory, and discrete GPUs.

  122. NTFS

    New Technology File System. A file system for storage devices.

  123. NVMe

    Non-volatile memory express. A standard of flash memory.


  124. OC

    Overclock.

  125. OCR

    Optical character recognition. A feature of some scanners that allows printed type to be converted into an editable text format.

  126. ODD

    Optical disk drive.

  127. OEM

    Original equipment manufacturer. The manufacturer of a computer or component that is usually then private labeled.

  128. OLED

    Organic light-emitting diode.

  129. OS

    Operating system.

  130. Overclock

    To modify the oscillator of a component to operate it at a frequency higher than originally manufactured.


  131. P2P

    Peer-to-peer.

  132. Packet

    A small segment of data sent over a network being pinged.

  133. PAN

    Personal area network; Bluetooth.

  134. Partition

    A user-allocated division of hard drive storage.

  135. Paste

    To output data from the clipboard.

  136. PATA

    Parallel AT Attachment; ATA; IDE. A deprecated analog standard for drives.

  137. Patch

    An update or segment of data for an application to resolve bugs, security vulnerabilities, exploits, or the like.

  138. Path

    The sequence of folders within an operating system hierarchy where a file exists.

  139. PCB

    Printed circuit board.

  140. PCI

    Peripheral Component Interconnect. A computer bus standard.

  141. PCIe

    Peripheral Component Interconnect Express.

  142. PDF

    Portable Document Format. A document file format.

  143. Phish

    To attempt to extract usu. financial information from a person by sending impersonating communications like emails to them.

  144. Ping

    To test the connectivity and speed of a network resource by transmitting a packet of data to it that then reports back to the sender.

  145. PNG

    Portable Network Graphics. An image file format. Supports transparency.

  146. PnP

    Plug and play. The ability of a component or accessory connected to a computer to operate with little or no setup from the user.

  147. POP

    Post Office Protocol. An email protocol that downloads emails off a mail server to an accessing device.

  148. Port

    a. A receptacle for a connector.
    b. A point of access over a network that a computer or resource may be established.

  149. Portable

    The ability of an application to execute without being installed first.

  150. POST

    Power-on self-test. The process performed by the firmware of a system to determine component functionality before fully booting.

  151. Protocol

    A communications standard, established by a governing body, that regulates data exchanged between computers over a network.

  152. PS/2

    A deprecated, non-PnP input device standard for mice and keyboards.

  153. PSU

    Power supply unit.

  154. Proxy

    A computer or server over a network that acts as an intermediate between computers accessing the network; node.


  155. QHD

    Quad high-definition. A screen resolution of at least 1440p


  156. RAID

    Redundant Array of Independent Disks. A series of software or hardware-controlled configurations for computers using multiple hard drives to increase performance, weather data loss from failure, or both.

  157. RAM

    a. Random-access memory.
    b. Loosely.
    Storage

  158. Ransomware

    A malicious software that denies access to a system or threatens to erase personal data unless users pay for its release.

  159. Read

    To access and process data.

  160. Responsive

    The ability of a website to adjust the layout of its content to accommodate multiple screen resolutions and dimensions.

  161. ROM

    Read-only memory. Data embedded in physical memory that cannot be altered or written to.

  162. Root

    The lowest point in a file hierarchy.

  163. Router

    A networking device with its own IP address that establishes connections between computers or to the Internet.

  164. Run

    To execute an application.


  165. SATA

    Serial AT Attachment. A digital computer bus standard for drives. Succeeded PATA.

  166. Save

    To convert data from memory into a separate and readable format or file.

  167. SB

    Southbridge.

  168. SD

    a. Standard definition. Any native screen resolution lower than that of high definition.
    b. Secure Digital. A proprietary memory card standard.

  169. Server

    A computer (usu. configured with a server operating system) designed to make access to networked files or resources accessible to computers that request them.

  170. SFF

    Small form factor.

  171. Slave

    An adjunct hard drive in relation to another, primary hard drive of a computer.

  172. Sleep

    A low power state of a device that can resume normal, immediate operation at request; standby.

  173. Smart

    The quality of a device, usu. with an ability to connect to the Internet, that has features and computational abilities like a computer.

  174. SMART

    Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology. A firmware system of hard disks that monitors elements like performance, esp. for predicting failures.

  175. SMS

    Short Message Service. The texting component of cellular telephony.

  176. Solid-state

    a. Consisting of flash memory; nonmechanical.
    b. A solid-state drive; SSD.

  177. SO-DIMM

    Small outline dual in-line memory module.

  178. SPD

    Serial presence detect. A system for detecting and reporting details about memory modules.

  179. SSHD

    Solid-state hard drive.

  180. SSD

    Solid-state drive.

  181. SSL

    Secure Sockets Layer. A now deprecated communications protocol for encrypting data transmitted over the Internet. Succeeded by TLS.

  182. Standalone

    Able to install a software without the need to download files first.

  183. Standard

    The shape, design, and speed of a connector, accessory, or component established by a governing body or company, universally employed by manufacturers.

  184. Starvation

    Process or system underperformance due to a lack of resources.

  185. Stream

    To broadcast music, television, or films over a network (usu. the Internet) in real-time.

  186. Subnet

    Subnetwork. A network created within a primary network.


  187. TB

    Terabyte. 1,024 gigabytes.

  188. TDP

    Thermal design power. A measurement of the heat generated by a chip or component that a given cooling system is designed to dispel.

  189. TLS

    Transport Layer Security. A communications protocol for encrypting data transmitted over networks. Succeeded SSL.

  190. TN

    Twisted nematic. A discontinued technology of LCD displays that attempts to remedy color reproduction when viewed from angles.

  191. Trojan

    Trojan horse. A form of malware that presents itself in an innocuous, sometimes useable fashion.


  192. UEFI

    Unified Extensible Firmware Interface. The firmware of modern systems responsible for initializing and configuring some system components. Succeeded BIOS.

  193. UHD

    Ultra high-definition; Ultra HD.

  194. UPS

    Uninterruptible power supply; battery backup.

  195. URL

    Uniform Resource Locator; website address.

  196. USB

    Universal Serial Bus. A connection standard for computer accessories and other devices.


  197. VGA

    Video Graphics Array. An analog video standard, consisting of a 15-pin connector for use in monitors and televisions.

  198. VoIP

    Voice over IP. Telephony, fax, voicemail, and SMS services that occur over the Internet instead of a telephone network.

  199. Volatile

    Data in memory or storage that is lost once a given device is powered off.

  200. VPN

    Virtual private network. A method of concealing the identity and location of a user over a network by routing one's connection through a proxy before access to a resource is established.

  201. VRAM

    Video random-access memory.


  202. WA

    Write amplification. The deteriorating of flash memory and solid-state drives as a result of repeated and progressively larger consumptions of data.

  203. WAN

    Wide area network.

  204. Warez

    Cracked software.

  205. Wi-Fi

    a.Trademark. A certification that a device is compatible with some form of wireless protocol.
    b. Any wireless Internet connection.

  206. Win

    Windows OS.

  207. Wizard

    An interface that facilitates the installation of software onto a computer.

  208. WLAN

    Wireless local area network.

  209. Worm

    A malicious, self-replicating file or application designed to consume as much storage as possible.

  210. WPS

    Wireless protected setup. A method for connecting devices to a wireless network either by transmitting a signal (usu. with a button) or inputting a code on the accessing device.

  211. Write

    To transfer readable data from one source to another.

  212. WYSIWYG

    What You See Is What You Get. A system that generates results of formatted data identically to how it appears input by the user.


  213. Zip

    A method of compressing files to reduce the amount of storage they consume.

  214. Zombie

    A compromised system under control of another, usu. to perpetrate DDoS attacks.


2021 Matt Day // Valce
www.valceart.com